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There have been many myths about tap water and bottle water, the controversy is that tap water is contaminated by bacteria and germs according to Stossel, (2005).

Bottle water is a Multimillion Dollar retail chain and as states Stossel, (2005) suggested people spend more money on bottle water instead of consuming tap water which is free. This could be the benefits of the bottle water companies because they know that bottle water is a convenience for people and are profiting from consumers.

Many scientist have tested tap water which they suggested is good for you but it cost consumers 500 times the price of bottle water, this suggestion challenges the idea that was stated by Stossel, (2005) .Even though people assume tap water is bad to drink however at the same time he suggested that tap water is bad and is contaminated by germs.

The question lies in what people believe water whether tap or bottle still feeds people thirst, there is not enough to suggest that any particular water is good or bad to consume.
Reference List:

Stossel, J. (2005, May 6). Is bottled water better than tap?.ABC 20/20. Available from

The recent in studies in America found that there are more female students attending university than male student. The rates of that is 56% of females make up the numbers of females attending university according to Tyler, (2002). One of the factors that contribute to this aspect is gender issue.

During the 1970s the feminist movement started to see a light to women entering higher education such as university, compare to 30 years ago where the male were in university studying a degree for the better future. That has however changed and is continuing to change for the female and male.

According to Tyler, (2002) an American female student Shannon Norris filed a lawsuit against University of Georgia because the university were bias against encouraging more male student to attend university which favoured boys.

Female and male should have equal opportunity when studying at university as there should not be based on what gender they are.

Reference List:

Tyler, R. (2002, October 2 ). Gender gap 101. Newhour Extras .Available from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec02/college.html

Educators have a role to encourage Aboriginal English in school setting because Aboriginal culture has been with Australia for centuries of years. By supporting children from non – aboriginal culture and Aboriginal students allows people to gain an understanding and knowledge about the history according to The Board of studies (1995).

There are over 400 indigenous Aboriginal English in Australia and the language has remained a part of the Aboriginal’s community as states Simpson & Clancy (2005). Although much has been taken from them like their language stay a strong aspect of their culture.

Educators can acknowledge the Aboriginal culture by displaying Aboriginal images like dream time stories, their painting and have the flag to show a sign of respect for the Aboriginal people.

It is important for all culture to be valued and respected so therefore teacher need to be critical of the way they teach in class room settings as states The board of studies (1995).

Reference List:

Board of Studies, (1995). The way we speak: The nature of the speaker. North Sydney, Australia: The Board of studies NSW.

Simpson, L . & Clancy, S. (2005). Enhancing opportunities for Australian Aboriginal literacy learners in early childhood settings. Childhood Education 81 (6).

Communicating idea in class can be daunting when wanting to make a suggestion to the other student’s idea. But with the right technique that can be achievable.

Part 11 discuss that as students at time it is tempting to made a suggestion or challenge with another person idea during class. This however can be made by restating what the student’s idea was but applying your side of the discussion Graff & Birkenstein (2010).

For example I agree with you Sally the part where you said “sea creatures live in water “ but I think that they also live on the land as well. This conveys the idea of what sally had already stated but I am stating my ideas, this generates ideas and different point of views.

As student the subject of the idea can also be changed and head to a different direction but the technique in doing so must not be obvious and not related to the main idea.

Reference List:

Graft,G., & Birkenstein, C. (2010). “They say, I say” The moves that matter in academic writing (2nd ed). New York:Matrix Publishing Services Inc.

In chapter 10 discussed the ideas of Metacommentary and it applies to supporting the writer’s ideas but in a way it is looking at different perspectives according to Graft & Birkenstein (2010). Metacommentary relates to the way the writer want to add on the main text but making a new statement and adding on a different view to make sense to the reader.

For example it is like watching a play but the play changes throughout the plot where the director had add on and develop more ideas. By also having a title allow reader to expect and guide the reader throughout the reading.

According to figure 7 (pp. 130) of Graff & Birkenstein, (2010) showed an image of two people supporting each other’s idea and they are joints at the hips. This represents the link to and giving the reader how and how not to think of the idea. This allows the writer to crucially think and elaborate on their assisting ideas, for example looking at both side of the thought.

Reference list:

Graft,G., & Birkenstein, C. (2010). “They say, I say” The moves that matter in academic writing (2nd ed). New York:Matrix Publishing Services Inc.

One of the most unforgotten historical events that took place in Australia was the stolen Generation. The indigenous Aboriginals lived on earth for over thousands of years until the British settlement arrived in 1788 according to Hollinsworth, (1995).

Governor Arthur Phillip demanded the settlement to destroyed Aboriginal community and culture there a scar remained attached towards the Aboriginal people. Leaving the community shattered and traumatised for over centuries of year.

In February 13th 2008, Kevin Rudd the former prime minster made a formal apology toward the Aboriginal people and the wrong doings that their ancestors have been through according to Welch, (2008). Unlike John Howard’s party which made no attempt to apology to the Aboriginal community according to Gittens, (2011).

The Australia community is encouraged to learn the cultures and history of the Aboriginal people to gain knowledge and an understanding what happened to the stolen generations.

Reference list:

Gittens, R. ( 2011, February 23). A crack in the wall of xenophobia. The Sydney Morning Herald, Avaiable from http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/a-crack-in-the-wall-of-xenophobia-20110222-1b41v.html

Hollinsworth,D. (Ed.). (1995). Race and Racism in Australia. Katoomba: Social Science Press

Welch, D. (2008, February 14). Kevin Rudd says sorry. The Sydney Morning Herald,Avaiable from http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/rudd-sayssorry/2008/02/13/1202760342960.html

Transition is being able to make a link to what the writer wants to add on without making the sentence too long and boring. According to Graft & Birkenstein ,(2010) in figure 6 they stated that transition is like two extended arms reaching from one point of the sentence to another (pp 107).

By adding transitional terms such as: and, but, and therefore allows writer to engage reader’s attention and focus on the key aspect when writing. Graft & Birkenstein ,(2010 ) believes transition is like repeating yourself but at the same time restating what the main ideas are, like adding pointing words for example like and such as.

The writer must also go through their academic work and recheck for any grammatical errors so this gives the work a clearer understanding. Transition is making the connection however it must be direct and straight to the point.

Reference List:

Graft,G., & Birkenstein, C. (2010). “They say, I say” The moves that matter in academic writing (2nd ed). New York:Matrix Publishing Services Inc.

In the contemporary society such as Australia people are still experiencing gender inequality. According to Arvanitakis, (2009) sex is the biological make up that identify people as male or female. But gender has been socially constructed throughout time and it is the way people are expected to act and behave in society for example masculinity and femininity.

Gender inequality still remain for example the ongoing differences between women and men’s wage, both genders doing the same job but the income are a overwhelming difference. According to Summers, (2003) which stated that both men and women graduated with their masters degree but the women earn $ 27, 000 additional on their salary however men were able to earn a staggering $71,000 on top of their salary.

To sum up gender inequality still exist even time has changed from the traditional perspective of stay at mothers and working males.

Reference list:
Arvanitakis, J. (2009). Contemporary Society: Melbourne :Oxford University Press

Summers, A. (2003).The end of equality work, babies and women’s choice in 21st century Australia. Sydney, NSW: Random House Australia

Miscommunication occurs on a day to day basis, this happens when people do not communicate effectively with each other and when there is a language barrier.

One of the reasons for language barrier is the lack of awareness of cultural differences and languages not being recognised as stated in Arthur & Beecher (2001). Multiculturalism should be recognised within school environment and other surroundings.

Even though people assume that living in Australia there should be some knowledge of speaking Standard English, that is not always the case because people find it difficult to sustain their home language and at the same time picking up Standard English.

There is majority of people living in Australia who are from bilingual background as stated by Arthur & Beecher (2001). For example the pressure for each family for their child to speak English may put a strain on the child as that it is vital to also keep the child’s home language intact.

Within the day to day basis people experience miscommunication frequently if there is no proper open communication and exposure to different cultures so it is important to get an understanding of cultural difference and respect each culture.

Reference List:

Arthur, L. & Beecher, B. (2001). Exploring literacy with families (pp.41-57) Sydney: Harcourt and Brace.

According to Belmont & Sharkey (2011) formal essay needs to be persuasive and supported with evidence. The writer must have knowledge of the subject and the points clearly written down, as this will be a guide line for the writer to establish the essay.

Therefore the writer should have an understanding of what they are writing. Before starting an essay the writer must take into account what they want to state first and have a rough draft to help the writer plan the essay. The essay should be in order to show the most important point first and working its way to the least important factor this then helps build the reader’s interest.

The structure of the formal essay would consist of: an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion according to Belmont & Sharkey (2011). Each of these points would need to coherent and have a connection to each other, and at the same time be clear and concise to the reader.

However writing an academic essay can be challenging but with the right help and practice the writer would improve at essays.

Reference list:

Belmont, W. & Sharkey, M. (2011). The easy writer formal writing and academic purposes (3rd ed.) Australia: Pearson Australia

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